Evaluation analysis on an integrated fare initiative in Beijing

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

economics - appraisal/evaluation


An effective fare policy and structure will realize a reasonable combination of both public welfare and operational profit. This article presents an evaluation framework for an integrated fare initiative in Beijing. It explores a new set of 10 evaluation indices, which include public acceptance, social equity, convenience, change of subsidy, possibility of modal integration, feasibility of implementation, change of revenue, change of ridership, improvement of operation control, and change of cost. The framework is implemented by combining the method of multiple criteria fuzzy decision with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The article examines a survey of Beijing Public Transit System users to assess three integrated fare strategies introduced by the agency. The results from the survey are subsequently used as the input data to the proposed evaluation framework. The implementation of the proposed framework in Beijing has shown that the price level of a one-month pass ticket should be increased, while it is recommended that its price cannot be increased to the level that is close to its operation cost. The case study also shows that the proposed framework is a practical and efficient method for fare evaluation.


Permission to publish the abstract given by the Journal of Public Transportation.