Modeling transfer and non-linear fare structure in multi-modal network

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - interchange/transfer, ridership - commuting


In metropolitan areas where multi-modal trips are common, modeling transfers is an important issue. The existing approach of connecting multi-modal networks, without attending to the number or kinds of transfers, cannot fully describe actual behavior. In addition, the common practice of non-linear transit fare structures imposes certain modeling difficulties on the assignment approach. In this study, we develop a formulation to overcome these two difficulties, namely the number and kinds of transfers are explicitly considered and non-linear fare structures accommodated. Through a state augmentation technique, we transform a multi-modal network to one we call state-augmented multi-modal (SAM) network. Once formulated, the SAM network behaves like a simple network and can be combined with traffic assignment or network analysis procedures. A numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.


Permission to publish abstract given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part B Home Page: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01912615