Mobility Management in Japan: Its Development and Meta-Analysis of Travel Feedback Programs

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

policy - sustainable, organisation - management, technology - intelligent transport systems, mode - mass transit


Travel feedback programs, Travel behavior, Transit, Sustainable transportation, Residential areas, Public transit, Mobility management, Mobility, Meta-analysis, Mass transit, Local transit, Japan, Implementation, Behavior modification


This study examined the history, current situation, and characteristics of mobility management (MM) in Japan and quantitatively analyzed the effectiveness of MM in Japan by extending a previous meta-analysis to include data until 2003. The most frequently used MM method in Japan involves travel feedback programs (TFPs). For the meta-analysis, all reports and research papers describing TFP implementations in Japan published in or before December 2005 were collected. Thirty-one cases of MM had been implemented in residential areas, schools, and workplaces. This study focused on TFPs implemented in residential areas, for which many reports and larger sample sizes exist. The analysis results indicate that TFPs in residential areas of Japan reduced car use by 7.3% to 19.1% and increased public transport use by 30.0% to 68.9% on average. Analysis of the effectiveness of TFP techniques indicated that goal setting leads to significant changes in travel behavior from car use to more sustainable transport.