Bus service optimization and car pricing policies to save fuel in urban areas
The effectiveness of optimal bus policy for dealing with fuel consumption in urban areas under different hypotheses of car pricing is investigated. The transport system of autos and buses is modelled as set of modes in equilibrium where bus service is provided with the objective of maximizing fuel savings over the whole of the road network and where car pricing is exogenously imposed by local authority. Results of a case study show that policies based on frequency, fare, and bus size alone have negligible effectiveness unless they are supported by car pricing measures. Also, the strong sensitivity of optimal bus operating parameters with respect to the time-to-fare elasticity ratio of demand is highlighted.