Chinese Edition of Transit-Oriented Development


Ming Zhang

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - transit oriented development, land use - planning, land use - urban design, policy - sustainable, place - urban, mode - mass transit


Urban transit, Urban development, Urban design, Urban areas, Transit oriented development, Transit, Taipei (Taiwan), Sustainable development, Sustainability, Public transit, People's Republic of China, Mass transit, Local transit, Land use planning, Hong Kong (China), China


Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a strategy to integrate transit and land use by focusing development around a transit station. Its principles are gaining increasing popularity worldwide in the global effort toward sustainable transportation. This paper attempts to answer two questions: Why do Chinese cities need TOD? How can TOD principles developed in the U.S. context be put into operation in urban China? The paper first introduces factors motivating communities in the United States to pursue TOD. Trends in China’s urban expansion and travel growth are then reviewed, with a case made for TOD in the Chinese setting with the use of integrated land use–transit development. Next, the paper presents an operational TOD model derived from the experience of developing around transit in Hong Kong, Taipei, and mainland Chinese cities. The model is characterized as five D’s squared, or 5D2, which includes differentiated density, dockized district, delicate design, diverse destination, and distributed dividends. It is emphasized that for sustainable transit, TOD should be applied as a composite policy combining land use, transportation, and transit finance.