Reforming innercity bus transportation in a developing country: A passenger-driven model

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus


The transportation system in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, requires significant improvements. The shortage of motorized vehicles and the excessive number of nonmotorized vehicles on the city’s streets have been the cause of unbearable traffic congestion, leading to negative externalities such as productivity loss, increase in stress levels, and adverse health effects from pollution. In a city inhabited by more than 12 million people, predominantly representing the middle- and lower-middle class, a well-organized low-cost bus transportation system is yet to emerge to resolve the city’s transportation problems. This study explores ways of improving bus transportation services in Dhaka. Eight factors were identified to address satisfaction levels of regular bus users whose opinions and concerns are deemed vital in making bus services in the city better organized, need based, and service oriented. Using factor analysis and multiple regression, five of the eight selected factors were found to have significant effects on passenger satisfaction. These include comfort levels, staff behavior, number of buses changed to reach destination, supervision, and waiting facilities. Policy implications are discussed in view of the findings.


Permission to publish the abstract given by the Journal of Public Transportation.