Pedestrian and Bicyclist Level of Service on Roadway Segments

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - bus/tram lane, planning - surveys, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, mode - pedestrian


Walkways, Walks, Traffic operations, Surveys, Pedestrians, Pedestrian walkways, Pedestrian traffic, Pedestrian movement, Pedestrian flow, Paths, Mathematical models, Level of service, Highway operations, Geometric design, Footways, Denmark, Cyclists, Customer satisfaction, Crossing The Road, Bicyclists, Bicycles, Bicycle usage, Bicycle travel, Bicycle riders, Bicycle lanes, Bicycle facilities


The Danish Road Directorate sponsored a study to develop methods for objectively quantifying pedestrian and bicyclist stated satisfaction with road sections between intersections. The results provide a measure of how well urban and rural roads accommodate pedestrian and bicycle travel. To determine how existing traffic operations, geometric conditions, and other variables affect pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ satisfaction, 407 randomly selected Danes were shown video clips from 56 roadway segments filmed by a pedestrian walking and a bicyclist riding along the road. Respondents rated the roadway segments on a six-point scale ranging from very dissatisfied to very satisfied. This resulted in 7,724 pedestrian ratings and 7,596 bicyclist ratings. Roadway segments and video clips were described by 150 variables. Pedestrian and bicyclist satisfaction models were developed by cumulative logit regression of the ratings and the variables. The models included variables that related significantly (p ≤ .05) to the satisfaction ratings. Variables that significantly influenced the level of satisfaction were motorized traffic volume and speed; urban land uses; rural landscapes; the types and widths of pedestrian and bicycle facilities; the numbers and widths of the drive lanes; the volumes of pedestrians, bicyclists, and parked cars; and the presence of median, trees, and bus stops. The models returned the percentage splits of the six levels of satisfaction. These splits were then transformed into a level of service. The models provide traffic planners and others the ability to rate roadways according to pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ satisfaction and may be used in the process of evaluating existing roads, designing new roads, or redesigning existing roads.