Evaluation of an existing bus network using a transit network optimisation model: a case study of the Hiroshima City Bus network

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - asia, economics - appraisal/evaluation, economics - operating costs, economics - pricing, operations - capacity, planning - route design, planning - network design, policy - equity


Bi-level optimisation formulation, Existing bus network, Numbered ticket-based travel demand data, Transit assignment model, Transit network configuration, Frequency design


This study evaluates an existing bus network from the perspectives of passengers, operators, and overall system efficiency using the output of a previously developed transportation network optimisation model. This model is formulated as a bi-level optimisation problem with a transit assignment model as the lower problem. The upper problem is also formulated as bi-level optimisation problem to minimise costs for both passengers and operators, making it possible to evaluate the effects of reducing operator cost against passenger cost. A case study based on demand data for Hiroshima City confirms that the current bus network is close to the Pareto front, if the total costs to both passengers and operators are adopted as objective functions. However, the sensitivity analysis with regard to the OD pattern fluctuation indicates that passenger and operator costs in the current network are not always close to the Pareto front. Finally, the results suggests that, regardless of OD pattern fluctuation, reducing operator costs will increase passenger cost and increase inequity in service levels among passengers.


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