Frequency-based transit assignment considering seat capacities

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - capacity, operations - crowding, operations - frequency, place - europe, ridership - mode choice


Transit assignment, Frequency-based, Seat capacities


This paper proposes a frequency-based assignment model that considers travellers probability of finding a seat in their perception of route cost and hence also their route choice. The model introduces a “fail-to-sit” probability at boarding points with travel costs based on the likelihood of travelling seated or standing. Priority rules are considered; in particular it is assumed that standing on-board passengers will occupy any available seats of alighting passengers before newly boarding passengers can fill any remaining seats. At the boarding point passengers are assumed to mingle, meaning that FIFO is not observed, as is the case for many crowded bus and metro stops, particularly in European countries. The route choice considers the common lines problem and an user equilibrium solution is sought through a Markov type network loading process and the method of successive averages. The model is first illustrated with a small example network before being applied to the inner zone of London’s underground network. The effect of different values passengers might attach to finding a seat are illustrated. Applications of the model for transit planning as well as for information provision at the journey planner stage are discussed.


Permission to publish abstract given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part B Home Page: