Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - reliability, mode - bus, infrastructure - stop, operations - performance


reliability, public transport, waiting times, economic cost, bus


Unreliable public transport systems cause excessive waiting times, late or early arrivals at destinations and missed connections for passengers. Also, unreliability results in economic losses to transit operators through under utilization of vehicles, equipment and work force. The reliability analysis of bus transit, covered in this paper, is based on numerical estimation of headway variations at different bus stops along the route. A number of simulations are conducted to determine the variation of performance of bus operation due to the variability of departure headways. The average waiting time of passengers is used as an indicator of operational performance. Simulation results show that the spread of passenger waiting times widens as the headway variation increases. Impact of size of vehicle on waiting time distributions is also investigated. Irregular headways lead to uneven passenger loads on buses. Such variation in passenger counts result in some buses becoming full and being unable to serve certain stops. Thus, average waiting time increases with smaller bus size. Simulation also reveals that the average waiting time increases for passengers waiting further along the route.