The environmental impacts of various rail passenger ticketing options in Japan
mode - rail, place - asia, policy - environment, technology - ticketing systems
Railway ticketing, Environmental impact of ticketing, Japanese railways
This paper quantifies the environmental impacts of the different rail ticketing options available in Japan. It is found that, in terms of their increasing impacts, the ranking is the rechargeable smart card system, the limited use plastic card, and the one-use paper ticket. Touch-and-go ticketing impacts are higher because of limited ticket reuse levels and higher gate energy consumption, especially during standby periods.
Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.
Dlamini, N.G. (2011). The environmental impacts of various rail passenger ticketing options in Japan. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 16, (5), pp. 365-371.