On the allocation of city space to multiple transport modes

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, land use - impacts, land use - planning, infrastructure - bus/tram lane


congestion, macroscopic fundamental diagram, multimodal traffic, San Francisco


This paper analyzes urban multimodal transportation systems in an aggregated way. To describe the aggregate behavior of traffic in cities, use is made of an idea that is now receiving some attention: the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD). We demonstrate through simulation how the MFD can be used to monitor and control a real network, in this case a portion of San Francisco, using readily available input data. We then show how different modes interact on the same network and discuss how these interactions might be incorporated into an MFD for multimodal networks. The work unveils two main results: first, it confirms recent results showing that restricting access to a city's congested areas can improve mobility for all travelers, including those who endure the restrictions; and second, that dedicating street space to collective transport modes can improve accessibility for all modes, even those from which space is taken away.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor & Francis, copyright remains with them.