The transit network design problem with elastic demand and internalisation of external costs: An application to rail frequency optimisation

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, mode - bus, mode - subway/metro, mode - rail, planning - network design, operations - frequency


Transit network design, Elastic demand, Optimisation models, Scatter search


In this paper we examine the transit network design problem under the assumption of elastic demand, focusing on the problem of designing the frequencies of a regional metro. In this problem, investments in transit services have appreciable effects on modal split. Neglecting demand elasticity can lead to solutions that may not represent the actual objectives of the design. We propose four different objective functions that can be adopted to assume demand as elastic, considering the costs of all transportation systems (car, bus and rail) as well as the external costs, and we define the constraints of the problem. Heuristic and meta-heuristic solution algorithms are also proposed. The models and algorithms are tested on a small network and on a real-scale network.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them


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