Schedule-based transit assignment model with vehicle capacity and seat availability

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - capacity, operations - crowding, operations - scheduling, operations - frequency, place - asia, mode - mass transit


Transit assignment, Transit seat allocation, Schedule-based, User equilibrium, Capacity, Travel strategy


In this paper, we propose a new schedule-based equilibrium transit assignment model that differentiates the discomfort level experienced by sitting and standing passengers. The notion of seat allocation has not been considered explicitly and analytically in previous schedule-based frameworks. The model assumes that passengers use strategies when traveling from their origin to their destination. When loading a vehicle, standing on-board passengers continuing to the next station have priority to get available seats and waiting passengers are loaded on a First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) principle. The stimulus of a standing passenger to sit increases with his/her remaining journey length and time already spent on-board. When a vehicle is full, passengers unable to board must wait for the next vehicle to arrive. The equilibrium conditions can be stated as a variational inequality involving a vector-valued function of expected strategy costs. To find a solution, we adopt the method of successive averages (MSA) that generates strategies during each iteration by solving a dynamic program. Numerical results are also reported to show the effects of our model on the travel strategies and departure time choices of passengers.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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