Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - capacity, operations - crowding, place - australasia, place - north america, ridership - perceptions


regional travel models, Sydney, Los Angeles, capacity, crowding, mode choice, delays


This paper describes innovative aspects in the development of regional travel models for both Sydney and Los Angeles. The overall approach was to incorporate the effects of capacity, crowding, and delayed vehicle arrivals in the network supply, mode choice, and assignment modules. Capacity and crowding modules were first developed and applied in Sydney. The Los Angeles effort has built upon that work and will also consider variations in vehicle arrivals. Most travel models ignore the fact that transit vehicles have limited capacity. The most behaviorally realistic way to implement this feature was through extra weight functions applied at the boarding station. A method was also developed to take into account crowding as a negative factor in the user perception of transit service quality. The work revealed that the probability of having a seat should be reflected in the segment in-vehicle time weight. There is a strong indication, from existing research and the Stated Preference surveys undertaken in Sydney, that in-vehicle time for a standing passenger should be weighted more onerously compared to a seating passenger. Ridership in heavily congested corridors in Los Angeles has been adversely impacted by delays in vehicle arrivals and severe bunching. Estimated wait and in-vehicle time functions will be incorporated in an integrated mode choice model and assignment procedures as part of the work reported in this paper. These methods can be used by modelers dealing with urban transport systems that have reached, or will reach, capacity and experience serious congestion related delays.