Decision making algorithm for bus passenger simulation during the vehicle design process

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - europe, ridership - behaviour


Vehicle design, Agent-based simulation, Autonomous agent, Public transportation, Bus passenger, Decision making


This paper presents a bus passenger decision making algorithm that can be applied to evaluate a new bus design using agent-based simulation techniques. For each single passenger, the algorithm builds a ranked list of available targets (seats and standing areas) according to their preferences and selects the most convenient one. The algorithm is fitted to work with a generic parametric passenger model and allow differentiating several passenger types managing their preferences regarding the entry door, seat location and standing area, among others. The differences in these preferences allow us to distinguish the types of bus passenger. The algorithm also takes into account the variation of preferences according to the amount of passengers onboard. Four fill-in modes from a nearly empty bus to maximum capacity have been implemented. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, two case studies have been implemented within the XJTEK AnyLogic simulation environment. The decision making algorithm has been used to model the behaviour of the eight types of passengers in two different bus layouts, one with three doors and the other with five. The types of passengers were defined by Chalmers University of Technology in a previous work from 100 observations at bus stops and onboard buses in Gothenburg, Bremerhaven and Rome. The results prove that the passenger decision making algorithm can be effectively used to evaluate a new design of a bus layout using agent-based simulation techniques estimating the parameters that measure quality of service (passengers' satisfaction and dwell time among others).


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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