Supernetwork Approach for Modeling Traveler Response to Park-and-Ride

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - park and ride, mode - car, mode - bike, ridership - behaviour


park-and-ride, sustainability, traveler response, supernetwork


Park-and-ride has been identified by transport planners as a key element of any sustainability package to promote multimodal trips, improve air quality, and alleviate congestion in urban areas. This paper presents a supernetwork approach that can assess traveler response to park-and-ride in an integrated fashion. The supernetwork is constructed to include all the choices of each traveler's activity program in terms of individual preferences and, thus, is capable of representing the traveler's action space. The choices of park-and-ride facilities are embedded into the full activity and trip chains. Within this framework, the trade-off between the use of private vehicles and public transport and the trade-off between car-and-ride and bike-and-ride can both be captured. In addition, sensitivity analysis of the design of services or facilities is possible. A series of scenario studies is presented to demonstrate that the proposed supernetwork approach can be applied as a systemic analytical tool to examine traveler response to park-and-ride at a high level of detail.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.