Improving the cost-benefit analysis of integrated PT, walking and cycling

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

place - australasia, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, economics - appraisal/evaluation


: Access, active travel, cost-benefit analysis, cycling, egress, integration, public transport


This research project developed an evaluation framework for estimating the cost-benefit analysis of integrating PT with walking and cycling.

The research was based on a review of the available international evidence of public transport access and egress behaviour. Where evidence was available, analysis of trip chains from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey highlighted patterns of public transport access and egress in a New Zealand context and, importantly, provided an indication of the mode shift and trip generation impacts of improved access to public transport.

This research report is accompanied by a spreadsheet evaluation tool, which can be employed to estimate the dollar value of improvements to the integration of public transport, walking and cycling. The research compared the monetary appraisal values from international business case guidance with the NZ Transport Agency's Economic evaluation manual, and the evaluation tool is consistent with this guidance.

The report includes a review of how walking and cycling at either end of a PT trip is represented in data collection, transport planning and modelling, and makes practical recommendations to aid integrated planning in the future.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by NZTA. This publication is copyright © NZ Transport Agency 2013. Material in it may be reproduced for personal or in-house use without formal permission or charge, provided suitable acknowledgement is made to this publication and the NZ Transport Agency as the source. Requests and enquiries about the reproduction of material in this publication for any other purpose should be made to the Manager National Programmes, Investment Team, NZ Transport Agency, at