Transit Service Integration Practices: A Survey of U.S. Experiences

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - surveys, planning - integration, mode - mass transit


United States, Transit operating agencies, Transit lines, Transit, Surveys, State of the practice, Service integration, Public transit lines, Public transit, Measures of effectiveness, Mass transit lines, Mass transit, Local transit, Lessons learned, Case studies, Barriers to implementation


This paper presents the findings of an investigation of transit service integration practices in the United States. A review of industry literature identified the various types of service integration practices that have been and are being implemented, including infrastructure, schedule, fare payment, information, and special events and emergency conditions integration. In addition, the review revealed how the introduction of such practices is part of overall changes in transit properties’ way of conducting business. The research made use of a two-stage survey of transit agencies that have implemented specific practices. An initial survey cast a wide net to identify innovative practices by 96 agencies across the country. A subsequent survey targeted specific examples of each type of practice and addressed the objectives of the practices, agency responsible for promoting integration, effectiveness of the practices, measures of effectiveness, barriers faced by implementers, and lessons learned. While there has been little formal evaluation of these practices by transit agencies, the predominant view is that transit integration supports the overall goals of the transit agency and provides substantial benefits to customers. Data to support impact evaluation are limited; however, several case studies were performed to probe integration practices in more depth. Transit agencies that have implemented integration practices have been able to overcome barriers to coordination and integration and have made a number of trailblazing efforts.