Using the built environment to oversample walk, transit, and bicycle travel

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, land use - planning, planning - surveys, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, mode - other


Walk, Transit, Bicycle, Land use, Screening tests, Household travel survey, Sampling, Non-motorized travel


Characteristics of the built environment (BE) have been associated with walk, transit, and bicycle travel. These BE characteristics can be used by transportation researchers to oversample households from areas where walk, transit, or bicycle travel is more likely, resulting in more observations of these uncommon travel behaviors. Little guidance, however, is available on the effectiveness of such built environment oversampling strategies. This article presents measures that can be used to assess the effectiveness of BE oversampling strategies and inform future efforts to oversample households with uncommon travel behaviors. The measures are sensitivity and specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and positive predictive value (PPV). To illustrate these measures, they were calculated for 10 BE-defined oversampling strata applied post-hoc to a Seattle area household travel survey. Strata with an average block size of <10 acres within a ¼ mile of household residences held the single greatest potential for oversampling households that walk, use transit, and/or bicycle.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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