Continuum modeling of park-and-ride services considering travel time reliability and heterogeneous commuters – A linear complementarity system approach

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - park and ride, mode - car, mode - rail, land use - planning, ridership - commuting, ridership - mode choice, operations - reliability


Park-and-ride services, Multimodal choice, Linear complementarity system, Travel time reliability, Heterogeneous commuters


This paper studies the modeling of multimodal choice in a highway/railway system with continuum park-and-ride services along a corridor. Commuter heterogeneity and travel time uncertainty with correlation are considered, while both auto and rail transit are subject to congestion effects. Eventually, the equilibrium multimodal choice is modeled into a linear complementarity system and appropriate solution method is proposed to obtain the spatial equilibrium pattern along the corridor. Computational experiments are conducted to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed formulation and potential applications, such as optimization of park-and-ride facilities, development of land use policies to integrate urban development and transportation planning.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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