Initiating Bus Rapid Transit in Jakarta, Indonesia


John P. Ernst

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, planning - environmental impact, land use - impacts, policy - fares, policy - environment, policy - sustainable, organisation - management, mode - bus, mode - bus rapid transit


Under developed countries, Travel time, Third world, Sustainable transportation, Rush hour, Ridership, Performance, Peak hour traffic, Patronage (Transit ridership), Modal shift, Less developed countries, Journey time, Jakarta (Indonesia), Financial management, Fares, Environmental impacts, Environmental effects, Developing countries, Bus rapid transit


On February 1, 2004, a 12.9-km (8-mi) bus rapid transit (BRT) line began revenue operation in Jakarta, Indonesia. The BRT line has incorporated most of the characteristics of BRT systems. The line was implemented in only 9 months at a cost of less than US$1 million/km ($1.6 million/mi). Two additional lines are scheduled to begin operation in 2005 and triple the size of the BRT. While design shortcomings for the road surface and terminals have impaired performance of the system, public reaction has been positive. Travel time over the whole corridor has been reduced by 59 min at peak hour. Average ridership is about 49,000/day at a flat fare of 30 cents. Furthermore, 20% of BRT riders have switched from private motorized modes, and private bus operators have been supportive of expanding Jakarta’s BRT. Immediate improvements are needed in the areas of fiscal handling of revenues and reconfiguring of other bus routes. The TransJakarta BRT is reducing transport emissions for Jakarta and providing an alternative to congested streets. The BRT provides a tangible vision for an effective, viable, and sustainable public transportation system in Jakarta and elsewhere.