An application-oriented model of passenger waiting time based on bus departure time intervals

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - asia, place - urban, infrastructure - interchange/transfer, infrastructure - stop, operations - scheduling, ridership - behaviour, ridership - modelling


Average passenger waiting time, bus departure time interval, passenger arrival rate distribution, bus stop, Beijing


This paper develops an application-oriented model to estimate waiting times as a function of bus departure time intervals. Bus stops are classified into Type A and B depending on whether they are connected with urban rail transit systems. Distributions of passenger arrival rates are analyzed based on field data for Beijing. The results indicate that the best fits for the distribution of passenger arrival rates for Type A and B bus stops are the lognormal distribution and gamma distribution, respectively. By analyzing relationships between passenger arrival rates and bus departure time intervals, it is demonstrated that parameters of the passenger arrival rate distribution can be expressed by the average and coefficient of variation of bus departure time intervals in functional relationships. The validation shows that the model provides a reliable estimation of the average passenger waiting time based on readily available bus departure time intervals.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.