Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - capacity, land use - transit oriented development, ridership - mode choice, ridership - demand, policy - parking, organisation - management, place - cbd, mode - bus, mode - pedestrian


Walking, Transit oriented development, Residents, Real estate development, Parking demand, Parking capacity, Parking, Off street parking, Mode choice, Modal choice, Management, Law enforcement, Land use, Jobs, Downtowns, Cycling, City centers, Choice of transportation, Central business districts, Bicycling, Berkeley (California), Automobile ownership


Findings are presented from a study of land use, parking, mode choice, and housing and jobs development in downtown Berkeley, California, a medium-sized city with 4 decades of experience with parking management and transit-oriented development. The multiple roles that parking management, including reduced parking requirements and parking pricing, can play in a downtown area are explored, as is the performance of transit-oriented development in smaller cities. Originally developed as a streetcar suburb, Berkeley has long supported high-quality transit, restricted parking, and walking and biking facilities. These practices have resulted in transit, walk, and bike usage far higher than U.S. averages. Nevertheless, in downtown Berkeley, traffic is heavy, parking is full, and concerns about infill development persist. Merchants are also concerned that parking constraints may limit economic development. Surveys of downtown shoppers, workers, and residents show that relatively few drive downtown. Workers and downtown residents make up a large share of downtown commercial enterprises customers. Residents have intentionally chosen to live in a transit- and pedestrian-friendly area and own and use cars far less often than average. Parking shortages are caused in large part by overtime parking, facilitated by broken meters and by meter feeding by employees. Overall, transit-oriented development has been successful in reducing auto ownership and use, but it is accompanied by tight parking and a certain amount of congestion. Parking enforcement and better use of off-street spaces would relieve the former problem.