Developing a TOD typology for Beijing metro station areas

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - subway/metro, land use - transit oriented development, land use - planning, planning - integration


Transit Oriented Development, Typology, Metro station areas, Node-place model, Beijing


Across the world, Transit Oriented Development (TOD) offers a strategy to integrate land use and transport systems by clustering urban developments around public transport nodes in functionally dense and diverse, pedestrian- and cycling-friendly areas. Even though the basic philosophy of TOD seems to be the same in all contexts, its specific applications greatly differ in form, function and impacts, calling for context-based TOD typologies that can help map these local specificities and better focus policy interventions. In recent years, TOD has also been widely advocated and applied in China; however, so far no study has systematically developed a TOD typology in a Chinese context. This paper fills this gap for the case of the Beijing metropolitan area. The approach is based on the node-place model, introduced by Bertolini (1996, 1999) to chart ‘Transit’ and ‘Development’ components, expanding it with a third, ‘Oriented’, dimension to quantify the degree of orientation of transit and development components towards each other. The paper reviewed the main TOD indicators in the international literature, selected those appropriate for the Beijing context, and classified the metro station areas into TOD types through a cluster analysis. The six identified types of metro station areas in Beijing demonstrate how the context-specific typology can support local urban and transport planners, designers and policymakers when considering future interventions.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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