Level of service delivery of public transport and mode choice in Accra, Ghana

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - africa, mode - bus, mode - mass transit, ridership - mode choice, ridership - perceptions, ridership - commuting, planning - surveys, planning - service level, policy - congestion, policy - sustainable, operations - crowding, operations - capacity, operations - reliability, planning - service improvement


Public transport, Level of service, Perception, Mode choice, Metro mass transit


Worsening traffic congestion and air quality has been associated with the proliferation of informal operation of private microbus and minibus in African cities. It is recognised that large buses hold the promise of relieving the growing congestion of African cities if they are managed efficiently and sustainably.

It is in line with this that this study seeks to explore the reasons behind commuters’ non-preference of Metro Mass Transit (MMT) for intra-city commuting in Accra, Ghana. A revealed preference survey was administered to 134 commuters to find out the reasons behind their non-preference and their perception of the level of service (LOS) delivery of the Metro Mass Transit.

The Study revealed that though Metro Mass Transit was 20% cheaper in terms of price, commuters perceived its service delivery as poor. Over-crowding of buses, non-adherence to time schedule, long in-vehicle time, perception of not getting access to seats, non-availability of bus at respondents’ origins and destinations, accessibility of alternative modes and long waiting times for buses accounted for the major reasons for non-preference.

Metro Mass Transit Limited’s improvement in its service attributes especially in-vehicle time, waiting time, comfort, reliability and accessibility is a means of increasing its modal share. Adherence to these is the surest way to achieving the objective of promoting mass transit in Accra by shifting people from the use of unsustainable modes such as mini-buses and taxis to the use of efficient high capacity systems as Metro Mass Transit.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part F Home Page: