Integrated planning of park-and-ride facilities and transit service

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - park and ride, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice, land use - planning, planning - network design, planning - integration, operations - capacity, operations - frequency, ridership - commuting


Park and ride, Transit planning, Network design, Multimodal transportation network


This paper proposes an integrated planning framework to locate park-and-ride (P&R) facilities and optimize their capacities as well as transit service frequencies simultaneously. P&R users’ route choice behavior is explicitly considered, and a link-based multimodal user equilibrium model is established. The optimal location and capacity of P&R facilities and transit service design problem is formulated as a mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC), and a solution algorithm based on the active-set approach is developed to solve the optimal design problem effectively. A numerical example is employed to demonstrate that the optimal design shifts commuters from the automobile mode to transit and P&R modes and, hence improves the net social benefit dramatically.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part C Home Page: