M Barth
W Li
M Todd

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - station, infrastructure - vehicle, mode - mass transit, mode - car


Transit, Station cars (Car sharing), Shared-use vehicle systems, Reservation systems, Public transit, Mass transit, Local transit, Interoperability, Insurance, Customer satisfaction, Car sharing, Billing, Access


Different models of shared-use vehicle systems (SUVSs) continue to grow worldwide, in particular in North America. SUVS models include carsharing, station cars, and other system forms. In general, these models coinstitute fleets of vehicles used by several different individuals throughout the day. As these systems continue to expand in number and size, the need for interoperability will increase. Furthermore, interoperability will play an important role with other transportation modalities as well (e.g., transit). There have already been several discussions on interoperability in carsharing; the general idea is to allow a user from one system to use a different system easily when traveling in a different area or on a different mode (in the case of transit). Interoperability will likely result in higher customer convenience and satisfaction and lead to greater market penetration of this and other forms of transit. A number of interoperability issues for SUVSs are examined in detail, taking into account the point of view of the customer, the operator, and the vehicle manufacturer. Issues such as reservation systems, vehicle access, billing, and insurance are addressed. Several technical solutions for interoperability are proposed, drawing on similarities in the arenas of electronic toll collection and automated banking.