The integrated dial-a-ride problem with timetabled fixed route service

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - demand responsive transit, infrastructure - interchange/transfer, operations - scheduling, planning - integration, planning - methods, ridership - old people, ridership - disadvantage


Dial-a-ride, Operational planning, Paratransit, Public transport, Optimization, Mobility, Multimodal transport, Cost effectiveness


This paper concerns operational planning of door-to-door transportation systems for the elderly and/or disabled, who often need a more flexible transportation system than the rest of the population. Highly flexible, but very costly direct transportation is often offered as a complement to standard fixed route public transport service. In the integrated dial-a-ride problem (IDARP), these modes of transport are combined and certain legs of the passengers journeys may be performed with the fixed route public transport system. We extend the IDARP and include timetables for the fixed route services, forcing the fleet of vehicles to schedule the arrival at transfer locations with care. Two mixed integer linear programming formulations of the integrated dial-a-ride problem with timetables are presented and analyzed. The key modeling challenge is that of the transfers between the fleet of vehicles and the fixed route public transport system. The formulations differ in how the transfers are modeled and the differences are thoroughly discussed. The computational study compares the formulations in terms of network size, computational time and memory usage and conclusions about their performances are drawn.


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