Greenhouse gas impacts of different modality style classes using latent class travel behavior model

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, place - europe, technology - emissions, technology - alternative fuels, ridership - mode choice


Latent class choice model, Multinomial logit regression, Greenhouse gas, Transport, Travel behavior, Modality style


This study analyzed the interconnections between urban structure and socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle variables and direct ground transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Helsinki metropolitan region in Finland by using a latent class choice model (LCCM). The aim of the study was to identify and improve our understanding of the latent modality styles which guide people's everyday travel choices, and the resulting GHG implications. The GHG implications for different modality style groups are particularly interesting, since such analysis has not been included in previous studies. This study used the transport survey of the Helsinki Region Transport (HSL) from 2012, including over 17,000 trips, and consisted of two parts: first, the population was divided into classes based on latent class analysis, and secondly, the mode choices and GHG emissions were modelled for each class. Seven modality style groups were defined with strongly varying GHG impacts and travel profiles. According to the class specific choice modelling the probabilities of selecting different modes also varied significantly. The study offers new information for designing effective mitigation policies for different types of modality style groups. For example, car-oriented groups would benefit from more fuel-efficient vehicles and vehicles with alternative power sources, whereas the multimodal traveler could be more receptive to policies promoting cycling and public transport. Overall, the study depicts the potential of the latent class method to study the emissions caused by heterogeneous populations and to search for efficient GHG mitigation possibilities.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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