Effect of Regional Characteristics on Injury Severity in Local Bus Crashes: Use of Hierarchical Ordered Model

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, mode - bus, planning - safety/accidents


bus-involved crashes, traffic safety, South Korea


As the importance of public transportation increases, the management of bus-involved crashes has become a crucial issue for traffic safety. However, there are relatively few studies on crash severity for buses in South Korea. This study investigated factors that influence the severity of injuries that occur in local bus crashes. The study used commercial vehicle crash data from a 5-year period from 2010 through 2014 in South Korea. To determine unobserved regional effects on crash severity, a hierarchical ordered model was applied to the analysis. Individual crash characteristics were set to lower-level variables, and regional characteristics were adopted as upper-level variables. At the lower level, the factors affecting severity of injuries included vehicle speed, vehicle age, road alignment, surface status, road class, and traffic light installation, as found in previous studies. At the upper level, the factors included pavement, emergent medical environment, traffic rate of compliance, and ratio of elderly in the community. There was a 5.1% unobserved variation between regions from the intraclass correlation analysis. The validity of a hierarchical model for local bus crashes was verified by applying the model to other long-distance buses, and it appeared there were no regional effects. This study found a regional effect for local bus crash severity, and thus this factor is important when developing prevention plans to reduce local bus crashes. These results contribute to the study of traffic safety.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Transportation Research Board, Washington, copyright remains with them.