Optimizing the spatio-temporal deployment of battery electric bus system

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - north america, infrastructure - fleet management, infrastructure - vehicle, infrastructure - maintainance, planning - integration, planning - methods, planning - environmental impact


Public transit, Battery electric bus, Charging station allocation, Spatio-temporal optimization


Environmental concerns due to fossil fuel consumption and emissions drive transportation industry to shift towards low-impact and sustainable energy sources. Public transit system, as an integral part of multimodal transportation ecosystem, has been supporting such shift by exploring the adoption of electric vehicles. In recent years, the advancement in Battery Electric Buses (BEBs) and their supporting infrastructure technology made them a viable replacement for diesel and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) buses. Yet, it remains a challenge on how to optimally deploy the BEB system due to its unique spatio-temporal characteristics. To fill this gap, this research introduces a spatio-temporal optimization model to identify the optimal deployment strategies for BEB system. The identified spatio-temporal deployment of BEB system can minimize the cost associated with vehicle procurement and charging station allocation, while satisfying transit operation constraints such as maintaining existing bus operation routes and schedules. The proposed method is implemented onto the transit network operated by the Utah Transit Authority (UTA) to showcase its effectiveness. As many transit agencies are testing electric buses and considering the integration of electric buses into future fleet, this research will help transit agencies make informed decisions regarding strategic planning and design of BEB systems.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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