Estimation of population origin–interchange–destination flows on multimodal transit networks

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, mode - rail, technology - automatic vehicle monitoring, technology - passenger information


Linked trip, OD matrix, ODX, AFC, AVL, Multimodal, Passenger journey, Transit


Previous research has combined automated fare-collection (AFC) and automated vehicle-location (AVL) data to infer the times and locations of passenger origins, interchanges (transfers), and destinations on multimodal transit networks. The resultant origin–interchange–destination flows (and the origin–destination (OD) matrices that comprise those flows), however, represent only a sample of total ridership, as they contain only those journeys made using the AFC payment method that have been successfully recorded or inferred. This paper presents a method for scaling passenger-journey flows (i.e., linked-trip flows) using additional information from passenger counts at each station gate and bus farebox, thereby estimating the flows of non-AFC passengers and of AFC passengers whose journeys were not successfully inferred.

The proposed method is applied to a hypothetical test network and to AFC and AVL data from London’s multimodal public transit network. Because London requires AFC transactions upon both entry and exit for rail trips, a rail-only OD matrix is extracted from the estimated multimodal linked-trip flows, and is compared to a rail OD matrix generated using the iterative proportional fitting method.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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