Mixed logical dynamical modeling and hybrid model predictive control of public transport operations

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, operations - scheduling, operations - performance, operations - capacity, planning - service quality, planning - service improvement


Public transport systems, Bus speed control, Bus bunching, Mixed logical dynamical systems, Model predictive control


Bus transport systems cannot retain scheduled headways without feedback control due to their unstable nature, leading to irregularities such as bus bunching, and ultimately to increased service times and decreased bus service quality. Traditional anti-bunching methods considering only regularization of spacings might unnecessarily slow down buses en route. In this work a detailed but computationally lightweight dynamical model of a single line bus transport system involving both continuous and binary states is developed. Furthermore a hybrid model predictive control (MPC) scheme is proposed, with a dual objective of regularizing spacings and improving speed of bus service operations. Performance of the predictive controller is compared with I- and PI-controllers via extensive simulations using the proposed model. Results indicate the potential of the hybrid MPC in avoiding bus bunching and decreasing passenger delays inside and outside the buses.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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