Optimizing fare and headway to facilitate timed transfer considering demand elasticity

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - demand, ridership - elasticity, operations - coordination, operations - frequency, operations - scheduling, economics - operating costs, economics - revenue


Transit, transfer, fare, profit, coordination, service planning, demand elasticity


Fare and service frequency significantly affect transit users’ willingness to ride, as well as the supplier's revenue and operating costs. To stimulate demand and increase productivity, it is desirable to reduce the transfer time from one route to another via efficient service coordination, such as timed transfer. Since demand varies both temporally and spatially, it may not be cost-effective to synchronize vehicle arrivals on all connecting routes at a terminal. In this paper, we develop a schedule coordination model to optimize fare and headway considering demand elasticity. The headway of each route is treated as an integer-multiple of a base common headway. A discounted (reduced) fare is applied as an incentive to encourage ridership and, thus, stimulate public transit usage. The objective of the proposed coordination model is used to maximize the total profit subject to the service constraint. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The results show that the optimized fare and headway may be carefully applied to yield the maximum profit. The relationship between the decision variables and model parameters is explored in the sensitivity analysis.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.