Planning of Fast-Charging Stations for a Battery Electric Bus System under Energy Consumption Uncertainty

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, technology - emissions, technology - alternative fuels, infrastructure - fleet management, planning - travel demand management


Battery electric buses, fast charging, emission free, energy consumption


Battery-powered electric buses are gaining popularity as an energy-efficient and emission-free alternative for bus fleets. However, battery electric buses continue to struggle with concerns related to their limited driving range and time-consuming recharging processes. Fast-charging technology, which utilizes dwelling time at bus stops or terminals to recharge buses in operation employing high power, can raise battery electric buses to the same level of capability as their diesel counterparts in terms of driving range and operating time. To develop an economical and effective battery electric bus system using fast-charging technology, fast-charging stations must be strategically deployed. Moreover, due to the instability of traffic conditions and travel demands, the energy consumption uncertainty of buses should also be considered. This study addresses the planning problem of fast-charging stations that is inherent in a battery electric bus system in light of the energy consumption uncertainty of buses. A robust optimization model that represents a mixed integer linear program is developed with the objective of minimizing the total implementation cost. The model is then demonstrated using a real-world bus system. The performances of deterministic solutions and robust solutions are compared under a worst-case scenario. The results demonstrate that the proposed robust model can provide an optimal plan for a fast-charging battery electric bus system that is robust against the energy consumption uncertainty of buses. The trade-off between system cost and system robustness is also addressed.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.