Practical Framework for Benchmarking and Impact Evaluation of Public Transportation Infrastructure: Case of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - south america, place - urban, mode - bus, infrastructure - stop, planning - service improvement, land use - impacts


accessibility, public transport, GTFS data


Although accessibility to opportunities is essential for good quality of life, it is strongly dependent on mobility options. This paper provides a practical framework for benchmarking and impact evaluation of public transportation infrastructure, which is demonstrated with a case study of Belo Horizonte in Brazil. It was found that the number of stops per kilometer of bus route is quite low in Belo Horizonte compared with other cities with similar population density, despite the city having a much larger bus network. Three types of opportunities were then considered: employment, education, and potential for social interaction. An isochrone model was used for implementing the cumulative opportunities approach to measure accessibility. GTFS data were used to conduct simulations of transit schedules to obtain two accessibility indicators. The first finding shows that the public transportation system does not provide good connectivity to areas with high population density. While examining sensitivity to travel time thresholds, accessibility was found to increase with increase in travel time but not equally so for populations with different income levels. Lower income cohorts were seen to have lower accessibility than higher income counterparts, irrespective of the type of opportunity. It was found that transport network improvements should aim to reduce the income gap of 60% of BPL population by at least 8%. Finally, recommendations are provided for areas of investment by highlighting critical transit corridors and a critical but isolated underserved suburb. This framework can be easily applied to other case studies around the world.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.