Smart card data-centric replication of the multi-modal public transport system in Singapore

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - subway/metro, ridership - demand, ridership - behaviour, technology - passenger information, planning - methods


Public transport, Smart card data, Direct assignment, Supply and demand


This paper proposes an innovative method of replicating the multi-modal public transport system in Singapore with high precision using smart card database. It replicates the operation of public transport system with known exogenous passenger demand and provides many operational details, including passenger inter-modal trip chains, operational timetable, and detailed transfer behaviour. The paper elaborates on the methodology of the replication including data cleaning, filtering, processing and converting the collected data to meaningful information such as bus journey trajectories and metro system timetable. Thereafter, actualised passenger trip chains are directly assigned to the replicated public transport supply. The resulting replication covers almost 96% of trips made in public transport in Singapore. It provides solid quantitative information on several aspects to support decision making, including precise temporal and spatial travel demand analysis, transfer pattern analysis, traffic condition investigation and bus utilisation analysis.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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