Optimizing EV-based P&R subsidy policies for commuting corridor based on cross-nested logit model

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - behaviour, ridership - commuting, ridership - mode choice, economics - subsidy, mode - park and ride, planning - methods, land use - impacts


bi-level programming, cross-nested logit model, electric vehicles, subsidy policies optimization, travel behavior analysis


The promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted by cruising range limitation and charging station deficiency. Given the mature development of Park and Ride (P&R) mode, which is used in many cities worldwide to attract more travelers to use public transit, a new travel mode, i.e., EV-based P&R is introduced as an alternative for commuters’ daily travel. This seems quite attractive to expand the use of EVs and further increase their market share. This paper aims to investigate the impact of EV-based P&R introduction on travel mode choice along commuting corridor, and further aid in the optimal subsidy policies decision for the government. A bi-level model is proposed to model the presented problem. The lower level describes commuters’ joint mode and transfer choice behavior through a cross-nested logit (CNL) model, while the upper level minimizes the system cost. A genetic algorithm is developed to solve the formulated model with a partial linearization algorithm for solving the lower level model. And a numerical example is then used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology and illustrate how the network flow pattern reshapes due to the introduction of EVs into the P&R mode and the change of corresponding subsidy policies. As the results show, improving the EV hardware, applying the intelligent supporting service system, developing new technologies for EV fast charging, appropriately improving the parking space capacity, and increasing the parking fee of transfer stations near the central business district (CBD) are all helpful to save the social cost and promote the usage of EVs.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.