Modelling passenger distribution on metro platforms based on passengers’ choices for boarding cars

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, place - urban, mode - subway/metro, operations - capacity, ridership - behaviour, infrastructure - station, ridership - modelling


Metro platform, passenger distribution, boarding behaviours, loadweigh


Metro capacity should be further improved with growing demand for metros. For metro lines with high-frequency services, the train dwell time is a determinant of the number of trains per hour. Uneven passenger distribution on the platform may cause a longer dwell time, thereby reducing the capacity. This study analyses the mechanism of the passenger distribution on the platform with regard to which cars of a train passengers choose to board. A model has been developed, considering the origin-destination and waiting time of passengers and the platform layouts of the stations where passengers board and alight. The model was calibrated using loadweigh data, which provides the weight of passengers on each car of a train, on the Hammersmith & City line of the London Underground. The largest difference between the actual and modelled average number of boarders on a car is less than 2 passengers, which suggests the model performs well. The results show, at both stations studied, 44% of passengers in the morning peak chose boarding cars based on the layouts of the stations where they alighted. The results would be useful for metro operation planners and station staff to take measures to manage passenger distribution on the platform.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.