Investigating end-user acceptance of autonomous electric buses to accelerate diffusion

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - europe, technology - alternative fuels, planning - surveys, ridership - perceptions


Alternative fuel vehicles, Autonomous electric buses, Technology acceptance model, Autonomous driving, Sustainable mobility


To achieve the widespread diffusion of autonomous electric buses (AEBs) and thus harness their environmental potential, a broad acceptance of new technology-based mobility concepts must be fostered. Still, there remains little known about the factors determining their acceptance, especially in the combination of vehicles with alternative fuels and autonomous driving modes, as is the case with AEBs. In this study, we first conducted qualitative research to identify relevant factors influencing individual acceptance of autonomously driven electric buses. We then developed a comprehensive research model that was validated through a survey of 268 passengers of an AEB, operated in regular road traffic in Germany. The results indicate that a mix of individual factors, social impacts, and system characteristics determine an individual’s acceptance of AEBs. Notably, it is important that users perceive AEBs, not only as advantageous, but also trustworthy, enjoyable, and in a positive social light. Our research supplements the existing corpora by demonstrating the importance of individual acceptance and incorporating it to derive policy implications.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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