An optimization model for integrated transit-parking policy planning

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, policy - parking, policy - fares, planning - integration, planning - methods, economics - operating costs


Transit, Parking, Transit-parking integration, Optimization model, Transport policy


The optimization model proposed in this paper is aimed to assist city councils (or other transport authorities) in the planning of integrated transit-parking policies. The objective is to minimize the joint operating deficit of the transit and parking operators while ensuring given minimum levels of (motorized) mobility in a city. The key decision variables are transit fares and parking fees. The impact of price changes on transit and car modal shares are described by logit functions of the generalized travel costs. The practical utility of the model is illustrated with a case study involving a midsize city in Portugal.


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