Waiting time perceptions at bus and metro stations in Nanjing, China: the importance of station amenities, trip contexts, and passenger characteristics

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - station, mode - bus, mode - subway/metro, place - asia, ridership - perceptions, planning - signage/information


Waiting time, perception, bus, metro, station, amenities


This study applied a partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) to examine how perceived waiting time may be interactively influenced by observed waiting time, station amenities, trip contexts, and respondent characteristics. The estimation results of the inner model indicated that, except for some direct measures (such as increasing the departure frequency), creating a good environment for waiting and helping passengers to smartly use public transport both have positive effects on reducing waiting time perceptions. From the outer model, we found that the perceived waiting time increases during peak commuting hours, in hot and rainy weather, at night, and when a transit vehicle is running behind schedule. Waiting at metro (rail) stations or bus stations with high-quality amenities seemed to shorten the perceived waiting time. Therefore, we recommend that transit operators in China should install shelters, benches, and arrival information boards in as many bus stations as possible.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.