A Twenty-Five-Year Biography of the TOD Concept: From Design to Policy, Planning, and Implementation

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - planning, land use - transit oriented development, literature review - literature review, policy - sustainable


transit-oriented development (TOD), transit communities, literature review


Promoting a new vision of community—walkable, affordable, environmentally sustainable—the urban design idea of transit-oriented development (TOD) extended the land use and transportation nexus. This review article offers a twenty-five-year retrospective of TOD literature, shaped by disciplinary, policy, and practice predilections. Although the “D” in TOD stands for the encompassing notion of “development,” most literature focused on land development in particular. Meanwhile, sustainable or community development ideas languished, and other Ds such as Density, Diversity, and Design served as an operational framework for outcome-based research. We conclude by urging renewed focus in TOD research on the original goal of developing inclusive and sustainable communities.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.