Using propensity score matching technique to address self-selection in transit-oriented development (TOD) areas

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, land use - transit oriented development, land use - impacts, ridership - mode choice, planning - methods


Propensity score matching, Self-selection, Transit-oriented development, Travel behavior, Built environment


Many studies have investigated the effects of transit-oriented development (TOD) on travel behavior, especially on transit ridership. However, most studies do not explicitly and effectively address the issue of residential self-selection in their analyses. The aim of this paper is to use cross-sectional data and propensity score matching (PSM) technique to quantify the contribution of residential self-selection to the analysis of mode choice in TOD areas across the metropolitan areas of Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD. The authors use PSM because it does not make substantive assumptions to the structure of the self-selection problem (e.g., explicit modeling of outcome and treatment). The results of PSM indicate that, even though the self-selection effect is considerable in the analysis of mode choice in TOD areas (about 7.65% in Washington, D.C. and 5.05% in Baltimore), living in TOD still has a significant impact on encouraging transit and other active modes of transportation.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SpringerLink, copyright remains with them.