Fare evasion in public transport systems: a review of the literature
economics - fare revenue, literature review - literature review
Fare evasion, Proof-of-payment, Pay-on-entry, Fare dodging, Fare evader, Fare dodger, Fraud in public transportation, Fare cheating, Free rider
Fare evasion has become an important issue for public transport companies, especially for those that have adopted proof-of-payment ticketing systems. Recent years have seen strong growth in the publication of studies on fare evasion. This paper reviews 113 studies to identify the characteristics of the research on fare evasion. An overview and classification in five main areas, i.e., fare evader-oriented, criminological, economic, technological, and operational is provided. Next, the status quo of these studies is assessed to support possible unifying research development.
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Barabino, B., Lai, C. & Olivo, A. (2020). Fare evasion in public transport systems: a review of the literature. Public Transport, Vol. 12, pp. 27–88.