Fare evasion in public transport systems: a review of the literature

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

economics - fare revenue, literature review - literature review


Fare evasion, Proof-of-payment, Pay-on-entry, Fare dodging, Fare evader, Fare dodger, Fraud in public transportation, Fare cheating, Free rider


Fare evasion has become an important issue for public transport companies, especially for those that have adopted proof-of-payment ticketing systems. Recent years have seen strong growth in the publication of studies on fare evasion. This paper reviews 113 studies to identify the characteristics of the research on fare evasion. An overview and classification in five main areas, i.e., fare evader-oriented, criminological, economic, technological, and operational is provided. Next, the status quo of these studies is assessed to support possible unifying research development.


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