Battery-swapping facility planning for electric buses with local charging systems

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - australasia, mode - bus, technology - alternative fuels, infrastructure - station


Battery inventory, battery swapping, electric bus, station location, stochastic demand


This paper designs a refueling system for battery electric buses (BEBs) by applying battery-swapping technologies together with a local charging system. The service capability of battery-swapping stations (BSSs) is restricted by the number of installed swapping robots. Depleted batteries are charged at BSSs which is equipped with a local charging system having a number of standby batteries and chargers in various types. This study intends to answer four fundamental questions: How many BSSs should be installed? Where should they be? How to assign the depleted electric buses to BSSs? What is the service capability of the BSS? An integer linear program is first formulated to represent the problem with deterministic demand. A two-stage stochastic programing model is then formulated to handle the demand uncertainties, which is then solved by a customized gradient algorithm. The test on a real network of the southeast region of Melbourne in Australia verifies the feasibility of the proposed model and draws managerial insights for the location and configuration of BSSs.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.