Sleep and sleepiness in shift-working tram drivers

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - tram/light rail, place - urban, ridership - drivers


Sleep loss, Urban transportation, Driver fatigue


Driver sleepiness contributes to traffic accidents. However, sleepiness in urban public transport remains an understudied subject. To fill this gap, we examined the sleepiness, sleep, and on-duty sleepiness countermeasures (SCMs) in 23 tram drivers working morning, day, and evening shifts for three weeks. Sleepiness was measured using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Nocturnal total sleep time (TST) was measured with wrist actigraphy. SCMs and naps were self-reported with a smartphone application. Caffeine and napping were considered effective SCMs. Severe sleepiness (KSS ≥ 7) was observed in 22% of shifts with no differences between shift types. Rest breaks were associated with slight reductions in sleepiness. TST between days off averaged 7 h but was 1 h 33 min and 38 min shorter prior to morning and day shifts, respectively. The use of effective SCMs showed little variance between shift types. These results highlight the need for fatigue management in non-night-working tram drivers.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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