Policy implementation of multi-modal (shared) mobility: review of a supply-demand value proposition canvas

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, mode - demand responsive transit, policy - environment, policy - sustainable, policy - fares, policy - equity, planning - integration, ridership - demand


Multi-modal shared mobility, business modal, smart operation systems, value proposition, government policy


Urban mobility options have increased in recent years, assisted by the widespread availability of smart device software apps, geo-positioning technology, and convenient electronic financial transactions. Multi-modal shared mobility consists of public transit systems and shared mobilities that support first/last mile travel, denoting the capability of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), and to stimulate additional non-private car travel demand. This paper reviews the supply and demand sides of implementation of multi-modal shared mobility. It found that an abundance of shared modes of car, bike, and e-scooter that are linked to public transport, can improve transport accessibility to meet specific public preferences, reduce social inequality, and minimise dilemmas from the demand side. This study introduces government policy innovations and other supporting system to improve the implementation of multi-modal shared mobility. Government policies play a key role in supporting shared mobility and technology development. However, governments do not have much information about new products such as shared mobility, which creates difficulties in subsidising multi-modal shared mobility services and potentially leads to policy failures around shared mobility schemes. This study suggests that policy entrepreneurship in collaboration with other partners, policy innovation, and the notions of merit goods and second-best policymaking can enable policy initiatives towards multi-modal shared mobility and provide supporting arguments if policies encounter failures. Implementing multi-modal shared mobility requires a collaborative partnership for a paradigm shift: service providers and government must jointly set a merit-based business model, with the support of organisations to achieve improved infrastructure provision, and smart technology applications. The findings will assist the community, business providers and government policymakers to promote multi-modal shared mobility as a pathway towards more efficient, environmentally sustainable, and socially responsive mobility solutions.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.