An equality-based model for bike-sharing stations location in bicycle-public transport multimodal mobility

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, infrastructure - stop, infrastructure - station, planning - methods, planning - network design


Bike-sharing systems, Multimodal accessibility, Network design, Equality, Theil index


Bike-sharing systems can be implemented to complete the coverage of public transport networks which could be insufficient to serve an entire urban area. Some methodologies that maximise coverage or accessibility are suggested in the literature. In this paper, we propose a bike-sharing stations location model that includes not only these issues but also equality aspects. The model aims to minimise inequalities in bicycle-public transport mobility among observed population groups trying to maintain specified levels of accessibility and coverage at the same time. We evaluated the performance of the model on a test network and carried out a sensitivity analysis according to the available budget. The results showed that maximising accessibility or coverage alone, without considering equality, may lead to an unequal distribution of accessibility among the population, producing discrimination between different groups. The outcomes of the application revealed the significance of the model in evaluating equality in the network design phase for achieving not only a satisfactory bike-sharing system and public transport multimodal accessibility of each zone but also a high equality measure among the considered population groups. Budget availability also played an essential role since a minimum budget value is needed to achieve higher levels of equality. The proposed approach could serve transport and public authorities as a decision support system in planning future investment as well as promoting multimodal mobility because it links bike-sharing stations with stops/stations of the public transport lines networks.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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